The foot care to avoid cutaneous injuries in diabetic patients
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What is it?
- Prevent traumatic injuries
- Not walking without footwear nor to take sandals or chancletas.
- Use natural fibres stockings or socks, without seams, darning nor hems.
- Shoes have be closed, of comfortable way, with a maximum heel of 4 cm, and natural material facts and with sole transpirable.
- Buy new pair of shoes in the afternoon, when feet are puffier, and to take them in a progressive way, until they result comfortable.
- Clean good shoes daily to maintain the flexible skin.
- Before putting, to inspect its interior to ensure that there is no object, seam or nail that stands out and can cause an injury in the skin.
- Take the nails of straight feet and not excessively short. Use preferably cortauñas or to polish them with an emery board instead of cutting.
- Prevent the injuries chemistries
- Not using callicidas nor substances that weaken the skin, as salts for footbaths or the hydrogen peroxide.
- Avoid the use of iodised povidone in the usual concentrations, since it causes authentic played-outs; is had to dilute at 50% with water.
- Prevent heat injuries
- Protect of the cold one with clothes of natural fibres or heating the bed without applying direct local heat: door mats, electric blankets, hot water bags, braziers, etc.
- The temperature of the water to wash feet has be around 35th C, controlling it with a thermometer of bathroom.
- Prepare the water of the bathroom first with cold water and then with hot water.
- Prevent local infections
- Wash up daily feet with water around the 35th one C, with soap of pH equal to that one of the skin.
- Avoid prolonged footbaths and the application of ointments that reblandezcan the skin.
- Dry good with a mild towel of clear colour (to detect any blood indication or exudate), with special attention in the spaces interdigitales. In the event of difficulty to duck or lift legs, you can use a strong dryer using always the cold air.
- After the daily bathroom, it is owed to moisturize the skin with a cream by urea, lanoline, glycerine, etc., without colouring agents nor odors, rubbing her softly until is absorbed completely.
- In the event of accidental cut or injury, he must wash up in an abundant way with water and soap, to disinfect with alcohol at 70% or cut-price iodised povidone at 50% with water, and to put an apósito sterile; if it does not cicatrise must consult with the team of health
- Improve the local contribution
- Do daily exercise in a controlled way assistance to develop the collateral circulation, that is, the appearance of more blood vessels that they can arrive at to compensate the contribution of blood in the lower limbs, that is why is advised to walk between 3 and 4 daily km for field plane and without rush. If pain is noticed in the pantorrilla when walking a given distance, it is very significant to stop, to rest a bit and to resume the advancement.
- Not staying standing or sat too time: get up and stroll during a minimum of five minutes hourly.
- Not practicing compression on limbs and to avoid the excessively adjusted clothes: jeans, leagues, corsets...
- Not smoking: the nicotine is a strong one vasoconstrictor (causes the estreñimiento of arteries), which is why the tobacco increases considerably probabilities of suffering vascular injuries or of aggravating those which already there is
Attend to periodic controls with the team of health. The foot care is fundamental to prevent injuries and amputations; it is for this reason that is recommended to follow a ruled periodic control by health professionals of reference.