In a trip, what to do in the event of...

Published on: 28/05/2018

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1. Diarrhea

The diarrhea is the rise of the number of depositions with excrement of consistency liquid. It can appear for the change of diet, of the type of water, of climate and schedule, or for toxins in fishes and molluscs not controlled, but the cause more usual is for the polluted food consumption or drinks, since is the via of contagion of many infectious diseases (is the consistent clinical manifestation to a provoked infection for a microorganism, such as bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) or parasitic (illness caused by parasites). 

The diarrheas se can to state with or without fever, and accompanied by other alterations as vomits or general malaise. The more usual are the calls diarrheas of the traveller, that, in general, do not go accompanied by fever and they last, approximately, two or three days.

In the case of diarrhea, suits to take into account following advice: 

  • It there is that rehidratarse with liquids. They can take envelopes of rehidratación oral (for example, Sueroral©) dissolved in water or to prepare them with 1 litre of water, 6 teaspoons of sugar, a bit of salt, a bit of baking soda and the juice of two or three lemons, and to take the liquid slowly and in a continuing way.
  • It suits to use an antidiarrheal one, following the recommended guideline and just while they last diarrheas. 
  • In the case of diarrheas with fever, vomits, excrement with blood, or of suffering a diarrhea more than two or three days, it is necessary to consult the health practitioner or centre.

2. Estreñimiento

The estreñimiento is the rise in the gap between depositions and the rise of the excrement' consistency. Causes more usual are changes of diet, of climate and schedule, that they promote the alteration in the usual rhythm of depositions of the person. 

In the case of estreñimiento, suits to take into account following advice. 

  • They must take, at least, 1.5 litres of liquids a day and, in countries in which does more heat, it is necessary to increase this amount. 
  • It suits to eat fruits and vegetables, for contributes the of fibres. 
  • It is recommended to do mild circular massages in the belly clockwise. 
  • It is recommended to take laxatives, following the recommendations of a professional.

3. Heatstroke

The heatstroke is an alteration of the thermal regulation of the provoked body for a long exhibition in the sun unprotected. The people more sensitive to suffer a heatstroke are the very old and little children; the trips with more risk are those which are done to tropical areas or to desert areas, or trips that are done during the summer, above all if the person is explained in the sun during core hours of the day. 

In general, demonstrates with headache, dizzinesses, disorientation, nauseas, tachycardia, high body temperature, hot and reddened skin and, sometimes, loss of the knowledge and hallucinations.

In the case of heatstroke, suits to take into account following advice. 

  • He owes place the person in a place with shade and fresh air. 
  • It is necessary to remove all the clothes to the person and to apply cold water in everything the body and wet towels, in cold water, in the head, armpits and groins, to promote the reduction of the body temperature. 
  • They must drink liquids (water or drinks isotónicas) in a frequent way and with small sips; it is necessary to avoid liquids very cold.

4. Hypothermia

The hypothermia is an alteration of the thermal regulation of the body that it causes a fall in temperature under 35 ºC, caused by a long exhibition to low temperatures without the protection of suitable coat or for a long immersion in the water. 

In general, demonstrates with difficulties in the speaking, tremors, disorientation, drowsiness, difficulties in the coordination of movements and, sometimes, loss of the knowledge.

In the case of hypothermia, suits to take into account following advice.

  • He owes place the person in a place with an annealed temperature. 
  • He owes wash out the moist or wet clothes and to cover to the person with hot warm clothes or blankets. 
  • It is necessary to drink hot liquids of frequent way and with small swallows. 
  • He owes avoid the intake of alcohol, since it promotes the reduction of the body temperature for the effect of the vasodilatation.

5. Fever

The fever is the rise of the body temperature. In a trip, causes of the fever can be a prolonged exhibition in the sun, the dehydration, to carry out physical activity with high or microorganisms temperatures that can cause an illness. 

In the case of fever, suits to take into account following advice. 

  • It is necessary to do bathrooms in lukewarm or annealed water. 
  • It is necessary to apply towels or sanitary napkins soaked in water tibia in the face. 
  • They must drink abundant liquids (water and juices) to maintain the hydration. 
  • It suits to avoid the excess of coat, with the aim of promoting the reduction of the body temperature. 
  • It is necessary to take some antithermal one to discuss the fever, as the paracetamol or the acetylsalicylic acid.

6. Insect bites or mordedura of insects

This type of reactions usually are arising from the insect bite of an insect, as the mosquito, or for one mordedura of some type of ant. Are characterised for itch, inflammation, pain, heat and enrojecimiento of the area of the insect bite and, sometimes, for blisters, in the case of some arachnids' insect bites. They sometimes demonstrate graver general reactions, as, for example, throat irritations; in this case, it is significant to address to a health centre or hospital. 

In the case of local reactions for an insect bite or mordedura of insect, suits to take into account following advice. 

  • Is recommended to apply cold in the area of the insect bite to reduce the inflammation and the itch. 
  • It suits to apply in the area of the insect bite a solution of calamine or of ammonia to reduce the itch. 
  • It is not owed to scratch the area of the insect bite, to avoid the risk of causing an injury.

7. Reactions for contact with marine species

These reactions usually are arising from the contact with some marine species, as, for example, jellyfishes; in general, these reactions demonstrate with itch, inflammation, pain, warming and enrojecimiento of the area. 

In the case of local reactions for contact with marine species, suits to take into account following advice:

  • They must step aside with clothes pins the remains of the jellyfish, La Espina or I click the of the fish that it has caused the reaction. It is significant not to touch the marine species with fingers.
  • It is necessary to identify the species that has caused the reaction.
  • It suits not to brush the area or to touch her with hands.
  • In the case of the insect bites of jellyfish, it is necessary to wash the affected area with sea water, never in fresh water.
  • Is recommended to apply cold in the affected area, to reduce the inflammation and the itch.
  • In the case of insect bites of species with a dangerous poison, as, for example, the fish spider, it is necessary to address to a hospital to receive the suitable antidote.

8. Suffer an injury

The injury is an injury of the skin, arising from causes very various, as, for example, blows, falls, cuts, mordeduras, etc. 

  • In the case of injuries slight, suits to take into account following advice. 
  • It is necessary to wash the injury with water and soap, since they are a strong disinfectant. 
  • It is had to apply an antiseptic just when it is suspected that can credit an infection, which it owe diagnose a professional. In any case, if is decided to put one, the iodised povidone would be the last one, since is the more cytotoxic. Earlier are preferable other antiseptics, as the ones derived from the polihexanida or, even, the chlorhexidine or the hexetidine. 
  • If the injury bleeds, it is necessary to do compression in the area with lints or with clean clothes or towels. 
  • It suits to cover the injury with lints or apósitos.

9. Malaria or malaria

The malaria or malaria is a more common illness in some developing countries, of the tropical area and subtropical of Africa, of Asia, of Central America and South America; se passes on for the insect bite of a mosquito, that it usually attacks of the atardecer until the early morning.

People that they travel to endemic areas or countries (countries where there are an endemic disease) must apply corresponding measures to prevent her, since, if it does not be suitable way, can have serious consequences. 

It suits to follow recommended preventive measures to avoid mosquito's insect bites, although the pharmacological prevention of the malaria has been done.

General guidelines. All the people that they travel, they have to follow following prevention measures.  

  • It is necessary to customise prevention measures according to characteristics of the trip: the destinación, the duration, conditions, the climatic period and the characteristics of the person. 
  • It is necessary to follow prevention measures of the insect bites of mosquito to avoid the contagion of the illness.
  • He owes use the preventive medication (quimioprofilaxis antimalarial) more suitable according to characteristics of the trip and those of the traveller, according to customised recommendations for a nurse or a skilled practitioner. 
  • There are different medications preventive and the dose varies according to the type of medication: ones are managed with weekly doses and others, with daily doses. All have to start to take before entering an area at risk of malaria or malaria and they must continue taking during the placement and when going out of the area at risk of the illness.
Malaria or malaria